Notes of American History

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September 6, 1781
British Brig. Gen. Benedict Arnold, a former Patriot officer already infamous & much maligned for betraying the US the previous year, adds to his notoriety by ordering his British command to burn New London, Connecticut (only 15 miles from his birthplace in Norwich, CT.)

The Continental Army had been using New London to store a large stash of military supplies, but only stationed Capt. Adam Sharpley & a contingent of 24 Continental soldiers there to protect it. Gen. Arnold’s British soldiers, with help from the area’s Loyalists, quickly overwhelmed Capt. Sharpley the Continentals, who had no other option but to retreat & leave New London & the military supplies unguarded.

After looting the town, Arnold ordered his British soldiers to set fire to every building, causing the equivalent of more than $500,000 in damages. Benedict Arnold was already despised throughout the colonies for his attempt to sell the Patriot fort at West Point, New York, to the British in 1780 for a bribe of £20,000. The burning of New London sealed his reputation as a public enemy & his name became a synonym in common American parlance for “traitor.” The bravery & military prowess Arnold had previously demonstrated on behalf of the Patriots at Ticonderoga & Quebec in 1775 have been completely overshadowed by his later actions against the country he had once so valiantly served. He, and later his widow, were also widely despised in England after the Revolutionary War. Even those you betray your country to help don't think much of you, evidently.


September 6, 1901
President William McKinley is shaking hands at the Pan-American Exhibition in Buffalo, New York, when a 28-yr-old anarchist named Leon Czolgosz approaches him & fires 2 shots into his chest. The president rose slightly on his toes before collapsing forward, saying “be careful how you tell my wife.” Czolgosz moved over the president with the intent of firing a 3rd shot, but was wrestled to the ground by McKinley’s bodyguards. McKinley, still conscious, told the guards not to hurt his assailant. Other presidential attendants rushed McKinley to the hospital where they found 2 bullet wounds: 1 bullet had superficially punctured his sternum & the other had dangerously entered his abdomen. He was rushed into surgery and seemed to be on the mend by September 12. Later that day, however, the president’s condition worsened rapidly &, on Sept. 14, McKinley died from gangrene that had gone undetected in the internal wound. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt was immediately sworn in as president.

Czolgosz, a Polish immigrant, grew up in Detroit & had worked as a child laborer in a steel mill. As a young adult, he gravitated toward socialist & anarchist ideology. He claimed to have killed McKinley because he was the head of what Czolgosz thought was a corrupt government. Czolgosz was convicted & executed in an electric chair on Oct. 29, 1901. The unrepentant killer’s last words were “I killed the president because he was the enemy of the good people—the working people.” His electrocution was allegedly filmed by Thomas Edison, but this has not been substantiated. On Sept. 16, after receiving a funeral befitting a president in Washington, D.C., McKinley’s coffin was transported by train to his hometown of Canton, Ohio, for burial.
 

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September 7, 1776
During the Revolutionary War, the American submersible craft Turtle attempts to attach a time bomb to the hull of British Adm. Richard Howe’s flagship Eagle in New York Harbor. It was the 1st use of a submarine in warfare. Submarines were 1st built by Dutch inventor Cornelius van Drebel in the early 17th century, but it was not until 150 years later that they were 1st used in naval combat. David Bushnell, an American inventor, began building underwater mines while a student at Yale University. Deciding that a submarine would be the best means of delivering his mines in warfare, he built an 8-foot-long wooden submersible that was christened the Turtle for its shape. Large enough to accommodate 1 operator, the submarine was entirely hand-powered. Lead ballast kept the craft balanced.

Donated to the Patriot cause after the outbreak of war with Britain in 1775, Ezra Lee piloted the craft unnoticed out to the 64-gun HMS Eagle in New York Harbor on Sept. 7, 1776. As Lee worked to anchor a time bomb to the hull, he could see British seamen on the deck above, but they failed to notice the strange craft below the surface. Lee had almost secured the bomb when his boring tools failed to penetrate a layer of iron sheathing. He retreated, & the bomb exploded nearby, causing no harm to either the Eagle or the Turtle. During the next week, the Turtle made several more attempts to sink British ships on the Hudson River, but each time it failed, owing to the operator’s lack of skill. Only Bushnell was really able to competently execute the submarine’s complicated functions, but because of his physical frailty he was unable to pilot the Turtle in any of its combat missions. During the Battle of Fort Lee, the Turtle was lost when the American sloop transporting it was sunk by the British.

Despite the failures of the Turtle, Gen. George Washington gave Bushnell a commission as an Army engineer, & the drifting mines he constructed destroyed the British frigate Cereberus & wreaked havoc against other British ships. After the war, he became commander of the US Army Corps of Engineers stationed at West Point.
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September 7, 1813
The United States gets its nickname, Uncle Sam. The name is linked to Samuel Wilson, a meat packer from Troy, New York, who supplied barrels of beef to the US Army during the War of 1812. Wilson stamped the barrels with “U.S.” for United States, but soldiers began referring to the grub as “Uncle Sam’s.” The local newspaper picked up on the story & Uncle Sam eventually gained widespread acceptance as the nickname for—& personification of—the US federal government.

In the late 1860s & 1870s, political cartoonist Thomas Nast began popularizing the image of Uncle Sam. Nast continued to evolve the image, eventually giving Sam the white beard & stars-and-stripes suit that are associated with the character today. The German-born Nast is also credited with creating the modern image of Santa Claus as well as coming up with the donkey as a symbol for the Democratic Party & the elephant as a symbol for the Republicans. Nast also famously lampooned the corruption of New York City’s Tammany Hall in his editorial cartoons & was, in part, responsible for the downfall of Tammany leader William Tweed.

Perhaps the most famous image of Uncle Sam was created by artist James Montgomery Flagg. In Flagg’s version, Uncle Sam wears a tall top hat & blue jacket & is pointing straight ahead at the viewer. During World War I, this portrait of Sam with the words “I Want You For The U.S. Army” was used as a recruiting poster. The image, which became immensely popular, was 1st used on the cover of Leslie’s Weekly in July 1916 with the title “What Are You Doing for Preparedness?” The poster was widely distributed & has subsequently been re-used numerous times with different captions.

In September 1961, the US Congress recognized Samuel Wilson as “the progenitor of America’s national symbol of Uncle Sam.” Wilson died at age 88 in 1854, & was buried next to his wife Betsey Mann in the Oakwood Cemetery in Troy, NY, the town that calls itself “The Home of Uncle Sam.”
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September 8, 1781
After receiving reinforcements, Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene of the Continental Army resumes offensive action against Lt. Col. Alexander Stewart & the British soldiers at Eutaw Springs, located on the banks of the Santee River in South Carolina. The Patriots approached in the early morning, forcing the British soldiers to abandon their uneaten breakfasts in order to fight.

Greene commanded approximately 2,200 men compared to the less than 2,000 British soldiers commanded by Lt. Col. Stewart. Unbeknownst to most of the Patriots, however, British Maj. John Majoribanks had managed to secure his unit in a stone house, impervious to Patriot Lt. Col. William Washington’s cavalry attack. When Patriot soldiers took over the British camp & began to devour the abandoned breakfast, Majoribanks set his men upon them. A 4-hour inconclusive bloodbath in the burning sun ensued, ending in both sides retreating from the battlefield. More than 500 Americans were killed or wounded in the action. British losses were even greater & the greatest sustained by any army in a single battle during the entire Revolutionary War. By the end of the battle, 700 of their soldiers were killed, wounded or missing. Because of the high number of casualties the British sustained, Stewart subsequently ordered his men to withdraw to Charleston, South Carolina, to regroup.

The Battle of Eutaw Springs was one of the hardest fought & bloodiest battles of the Revolution & proved to be the last major engagement of the war to take place in the South. The claim of several historians that the British won the battle is challenged by Christine Swager in her book The Valiant Died: The Battle of Eutaw Springs September 8, 1781. The book argues that, 1st, at the end of the battle, the British held the majority, but not the entirety, of the field where the main battle took place. Greene held part of the field where the initial skirmish spilled out of the woods into the clearings. Swager also argues that Greene meant to re-engage the enemy on the following day, but was prevented from doing so because the excessively wet weather conditions negated much of his firepower.

Neither army left the vicinity for at least a full day following the battle. When Greene withdrew, he left a strong picket to oppose a possible British advance, while Stewart withdrew the remnants of his force towards Charleston. His rear was apparently under constant fire at least until meeting with reinforcements near Moncks Corner. Despite winning a tactical victory, the British lost strategically. Their inability to stop Greene's continuing operations forced them to abandon most of their conquests in the South, leaving them in control of a small number of isolated enclaves at Wilmington, Charleston, & Savannah. The British attempt to pacify the South with Loyalist support had failed even before Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown.
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September 8, 1974
In a controversial executive action, President Gerald Ford pardons his predecessor Richard M. Nixon for any crimes he may have committed or participated in while in office. Ford later defended this action before the House Judiciary Committee, explaining that he wanted to end the national divisions created by the Watergate scandal.

The Watergate scandal erupted after it was revealed that Nixon & his aides had engaged in illegal activities during his reelection campaign–& then attempted to cover up evidence of wrongdoing. With impeachment proceedings underway against him in Congress, Nixon bowed to public pressure & became the 1st American president to resign. At noon on Aug. 9, Nixon officially ended his term, departing with his family in a helicopter from the White House lawn. Minutes later, Vice President Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as the 38th president of the US in the East Room of the White House. After taking the oath of office, President Ford spoke to the nation in a television address, declaring, “My fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over.”

Ford, the 1st president who came to the office through appointment rather than election, had replaced Spiro Agnew as vice president only 8 months before. In a political scandal independent of the Nixon administration’s wrongdoings in the Watergate affair, Agnew had been forced to resign in disgrace after he was charged with income tax evasion & political corruption. Exactly 1 month after Nixon announced his resignation, Ford issued the former president a “full, free & absolute” pardon for any crimes he committed while in office. The pardon was widely condemned at the time.

Decades later, the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation presented its 2001 Profile in Courage Award to Gerald Ford for his 1974 pardon of Nixon. In pardoning Nixon, said the foundation, Ford placed his love of country ahead of his own political future & brought needed closure to the divisive Watergate affair. Ford left politics after losing the 1976 presidential election to Democrat Jimmy Carter. Ford died on December 26, 2006, at the age of 93.
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September 9, 1776
The Continental Congress formally declares the name of the new nation to be the “United States” of America. This replaced the term “United Colonies,” which had been in general use. In the Congressional declaration dated September 9, 1776, the delegates wrote, “That in all continental commissions, and other instruments, where, heretofore, the words ‘United Colonies’ have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the “United States.”

A resolution by Richard Henry Lee, which had been presented to Congress on June 7 & approved on July 2, 1776, issued the resolve, “That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States….” As a result, John Adams thought July 2 would be celebrated as “the most memorable epoch in the history of America.” Instead, the day has been largely forgotten in favor of July 4, when Jefferson’s edited Declaration of Independence was adopted. That document also states, “That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES.” However, Lee began with the line, while Jefferson saved it for the middle of his closing paragraph.

By September, the Declaration of Independence had been drafted, signed, printed & sent to Great Britain. What Congress had declared to be true on paper in July was clearly the case in practice, as Patriot blood was spilled against the British on the battlefields of Boston, Montreal, Quebec & New York. Congress had created a country from a cluster of colonies & the nation’s new name reflected that reality.



September 9. 1942
A Japanese floatplane drops incendiary bombs on an Oregon state forest—the 1st & only air attack on the US mainland in the war. Launching from the Japanese sub I-25, Nobuo Fujita piloted his light aircraft over the state of Oregon & firebombed Mount Emily, alighting a state forest—& ensuring his place in the history books as the only man to ever bomb the continental US. The president immediately called for a news blackout for the sake of morale. No long-term damage was done, & Fujita eventually went home to train navy pilots for the rest of the war.
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September 9, 1971
Prisoners riot & seize control of the maximum-security Attica Correctional Facility near Buffalo, NY. Later that day, state police retook most of the prison, but 1,281 convicts occupied an exercise field called D Yard, where they held 39 prison guards & employees hostage for 4 days. After negotiations stalled, state police & prison officers launched a disastrous raid on Sept. 13, in which 10 hostages & 29 inmates were killed in an indiscriminate hail of gunfire. 89 others were seriously injured.

By the summer of 1971, the state prison in Attica, NY, was ready to explode. Inmates were frustrated with chronic overcrowding, censorship of letters, & living conditions that limited them to 1 shower/week & 1 roll of toilet paper/month. Some Attica prisoners, adopting the radical spirit of the times, began to perceive themselves as political prisoners rather than convicted criminals. On the morning of Sept. 9, the eruption came when inmates on the way to breakfast overpowered their guards & stormed down a prison gallery in a spontaneous riot. They broke through a faulty gate & into a central area known as Times Square, which gave them access to all the cellblocks. Many of the prison’s 2,200 inmates then joined in the rioting, & prisoners rampaged through the facility beating guards, acquiring makeshift weapons, & burning down the prison chapel. 1 guard, William Quinn, was severely beaten & thrown out a 2nd-story window. 2 days later, he died in a hospital from his injuries.

Using tear gas & submachine guns, state police regained control of 3 of the 4 cellblocks held by the rioters without loss of life. By 10:30 am, the inmates were only in control of D Yard, a large, open exercise field surrounded by 35-foot walls & overlooked by gun towers. 39 hostages, mostly guards & a few other prison employees, were blindfolded & held in a tight circle. Inmates armed with clubs & knives guarded the hostages closely. Riot leaders put together a list of demands, including improved living conditions, more religious freedom, an end to mail censorship, & expanded phone privileges. They also called for specific individuals, such as US Representative Herman Badillo & New York Times columnist Tom Wicker, to serve as negotiators & civilian observers. Meanwhile, hundreds of state troopers arrived at Attica, & NY Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller called in the National Guard.

In tense negotiations, NY Correction Commissioner Russell Oswald agreed to honor the inmates’ demands for improved living conditions. However, talks bogged down when the prisoners called for amnesty for everyone in D Yard, along with safe passage to a “non-imperialist country” for anyone who desired it. Observers pleaded with Gov. Rockefeller to come to Attica as a show of good faith, but he refused & instead ordered the prison to be retaken by force. On the rainy Monday morning of Sept. 13, an ultimatum was read to the inmates, calling on them to surrender. They responded by putting knives against the hostages’ throats. At 9:46 am, helicopters flew over the yard, dropping tear gas as state police & correction officers stormed in with guns blazing. The police fired 3,000 rounds into the tear gas haze, killing 29 inmates & 10 of the hostages & wounding 89. Most were shot in the initial indiscriminate barrage of gunfire, but other prisoners were shot or killed after they surrendered. An emergency medical technician recalled seeing a wounded prisoner, lying on the ground, shot several times in the head by a state trooper. Another prisoner was shot 7 times & then ordered to crawl along the ground. When he didn’t move fast enough, an officer kicked him. Many others were savagely beaten.

In the aftermath of the bloody raid, authorities said the inmates had killed the slain hostages by slitting their throats. 1 hostage was said to have been castrated. However, autopsies showed that these charges were false & that all 10 hostages had been shot to death. The attempted cover-up increased public condemnation of the raid & prompted a Congressional investigation. The Attica riot was the worst prison riot in US history. A total of 43 people were killed, including the 39 killed in the raid, guard William Quinn, & 3 inmates killed by other prisoners early in the riot. In the week after its conclusion, police allegedly ngaged in brutal reprisals against the prisoners, forcing them to run a gauntlet of nightsticks & crawl naked across broken glass, among other tortures. The many injured inmates received substandard medical treatment, if any.

In 1974, lawyers representing the 1,281 inmates filed a $2.8 billion class-action lawsuit against prison & state officials. It took 18 years before the suit came to trial, & 5 more years to reach the damages phase. In Jan. 2000, New York State & the former & current inmates settled for $8 million, which was divided unevenly among about 500 inmates, depending on the severity of their suffering during the raid & the weeks following. Families of the slain correction officers lost their right to sue by accepting the modest death-benefit checks sent to them by the state. The hostages who survived likewise lost their right to sue by cashing their paychecks. Both groups attest that no state officials apprised them of their legal rights, & they were denied compensation that New York should have paid to them.
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Hayata

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I knew about the Jap balloon bombs in WWII but never knew they had bombed us!
 
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I knew about the Jap balloon bombs in WWII but never knew they had bombed us!
FDR's news blackouts were quite effective. Many people still don't know about the balloon bombs or think they're a myth. That's why I did the post on May 5 (#49) about the 2 adults & 5 children killed by one. In looking up the names of the people for that post, I came across this incident (which I had never heard of) & stuck it in my back pocket.
 
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September 10, 1776
Gen. George Washington asks for a volunteer for an extremely dangerous mission: to gather intelligence behind enemy lines before the coming Battle of Harlem Heights. Capt. Nathan Hale of the 19th Regiment of the Continental Army stepped forward & subsequently become one of the 1st known American spies of the Revolutionary War. Disguised as a Dutch schoolmaster, the Yale University-educated Hale slipped behind British lines on Long Island & then successfully gathered information about British troop movements for the next couple of weeks. While Hale was behind enemy lines, the British invaded the island of Manhattan; they took control of the city on Sept. 15, 1776. When the city was set on fire on Sept. 20, 1776, British soldiers were put on high alert for sympathizers to the Patriot cause. The following evening, on September 21, 1776, Hale was captured while sailing Long Island Sound, trying to cross back into American-controlled territory.

Hale was interrogated by British Gen. William Howe &, when it was discovered that he was carrying incriminating documents, Gen. Howe ordered his execution for spying, which was set for the following morning. After being led to the gallows, legend holds that Hale was asked if he had any last words & that he replied with these now-famous words, “I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country.” There is no historical record to prove that Hale actually made this statement, but, if he did, he may have been inspired by these lines in English author Joseph Addison’s 1713 play Cato: “What a pity it is/That we can die but once to serve our country.”

Patriot spy Nathan Hale was hanged by the British on the morning of Sept. 22, 1776. He was just 21 years old. Although rumors later surfaced that Hale’s capture was the result of a betrayal by his 1st cousin & British Loyalist Samuel Hale, the exact circumstances leading to Hale’s arrest have never been discovered.
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September 10, 1919
Almost 1 year after an armistice officially ended the First World War, New York City holds a parade to welcome home Gen. John J. Pershing, commander in chief of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), & some 25,000 soldiers who had served in the AEF’s 1st Division on the Western Front. The US, which maintained its neutrality when World War I broke out in Europe in the summer of 1914, declared war on Germany in April 1917. Though the US was initially able to muster only about 100,000 men to send to France under Pershing’s command that summer, President Woodrow Wilson swiftly adopted a policy of conscription. By the time the war ended on Nov. 11, 1918, more than 2 million American soldiers had served on the battlefields of Western Europe, & some 50,000 of them had lost their lives. Demobilization began in late 1918; by Sept. 1919 the last combat divisions had left France, though an occupation force of 16,000 US soldiers remained until 1923, based in the town of Coblenz, Germany, as part of the post-war Allied presence in the Rhine Valley determined by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.

Before the AEF’s combat units left service, the US War Department gave citizens the chance to honor their troops. “New York lived yesterday probably the last chapter in its history of great military spectacles growing out of the war,” trumpeted The New York Times of the parade that took place Sept. 10, 1919. According to the paper, an enthusiastic crowd turned out to cheer the 25,000 members of the 1st Division, who filed down 5th Avenue from 107th Street to Washington Square in Greenwich Village, wearing trench helmets & full combat equipment.

The Times report continued: “It was the town’s 1st opportunity to greet the men of the 1st Division, & to let them know it remembered their glorious part in the American Army’s smashing drives at Toul, at Cantigny, at Soissons, at St. Mihiel, & at the Meuse & the Argonne.” The loudest cheers were for Pershing himself, who “was kept at almost continual salute by the tributes volleyed at him from both sides of the avenue.” Pershing led a similar parade down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, DC on Sept. 17; 2 days later, he addressed a joint session of the US Congress, which that same month created a new rank for him—”General of the Armies,” a rank only he has held—making him the highest-ranking military figure in the country. During his tenure as chief of staff of the US Army, from 1921 to 1924, Pershing completely reorganized the structure of the army, combining the regular army, the National Guard, & the permanent army reserves into a single organization. Upon his retirement, he headed up a commission supervising the construction of American war memorials in France. Pershing died in 1948.
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Grunk

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Apologies for a very long post.

Today's historical note was an obvious choice, but one that is still difficult to write about. I'll start by saying, I'm trying to write a basic description of what happened. I'm not going to pursue any theories, whether it be what the government knew beforehand, if burning jet fuel will melt steel, Saudi government involvement or Back to the Future was a prediction. If people want to discuss or argue about those in the thread, feel free. I'm just wanting to do my little part to make sure NEVER FORGET is more than a bumper sticker. Writing it up here is a new addition for me. My wife & I have a moment or silence & reflection for the fallen, the survivors & the nation every September 11 & have every year since the attack. Ever since the 10th anniversary, I send a text to every member of my family on the morning of September 11th to insist they think about it. Some of them have told me they don't like me doing it, but I honestly don't give a fuck.

September 11, 2001
At 8:45 am on a clear Tuesday morning, an American Airlines Boeing 767 loaded with 20,000 gallons of jet fuel crashes into the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The impact left a gaping, burning hole near the 80th floor of the 110-story skyscraper, instantly killing hundreds of people & trapping hundreds more in higher floors. As the evacuation of the tower & its twin got underway, television cameras broadcast live images of what appeared to be a freak accident. Then, 18 minutes after the 1st plane hit, a 2nd Boeing 767—United Airlines Flight 175—appeared out of the sky, turned sharply toward the World Trade Center, & sliced into the south tower at about the 60th floor. The collision caused a massive explosion that showered burning debris over surrounding buildings and the streets below. America was under attack. The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of 4 coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the US. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, & caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure & property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer & respiratory diseases in the months & years following the attacks. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history & the single deadliest incident for firefighters & law enforcement officers in the US history.

The attackers were Islamic terrorists from Saudi Arabia & several other Arab nations. Financed by Saudi fugitive Osama bin Laden’s al Qaeda terrorist organization, they were allegedly acting in retaliation for America’s support of Israel, its involvement in the Persian Gulf War, & its continued military presence in the Middle East. Some of the terrorists had lived in the US for more than a year & had taken flying lessons at American commercial flight schools. Others had slipped into the US in the months before September 11 & acted as the “muscle” in the operation. The 19 terrorists easily smuggled box-cutters & knives through security at 3 East Coast airports & boarded 4 flights bound for California, chosen because the planes were loaded with fuel for the long transcontinental journey. Soon after takeoff, the terrorists commandeered the 4 planes & took the controls, transforming the ordinary commuter jets into guided missiles.

As millions watched in horror the events unfolding in New York, American Airlines Flight 77 circled over downtown Washington & slammed into the west side of the Pentagon military headquarters at 9:45 am. Jet fuel from the Boeing 757 caused a devastating inferno that led to a structural collapse of a portion of the giant concrete building. All told, 125 military personnel & civilians were killed in the Pentagon along with all 64 people aboard the airliner. Less than 15 minutes after the terrorists struck the nerve center of the US military, the horror in NY took a catastrophic turn for the worse when the south tower of the World Trade Center collapsed in a massive cloud of dust & smoke. The structural steel of the skyscraper, built to withstand winds in excess of 200 mph & a large conventional fire, could not withstand the tremendous heat generated by the burning jet fuel. At 10:30 am, the other Trade Center tower collapsed. Close to 3,000 people died in the World Trade Center & its vicinity, including a staggering 343 firefighters & paramedics, 23 New York City police officers, & 37 Port Authority police officers who were struggling to complete an evacuation of the buildings & save the office workers trapped on higher floors. Only 6 people in the World Trade Center towers at the time of their collapse survived. Almost 10,000 other people were treated for injuries, many severe.

Meanwhile, a 4th California-bound plane–United Flight 93–was hijacked about 40 minutes after leaving Newark International Airport in New Jersey. Because the plane had been delayed in taking off, passengers on board learned of events in New York & Washington via cell phone & Airfone calls to the ground. Knowing that the aircraft was not returning to an airport as the hijackers claimed, a group of passengers & flight attendants planned an insurrection. 1 of the passengers, Thomas Burnett, Jr., told his wife over the phone that “I know we’re all going to die. There’s 3 of us who are going to do something about it. I love you, honey.” Another passenger–Todd Beamer–was heard saying “Are you guys ready? Let’s roll” over an open line. Sandy Bradshaw, a flight attendant, called her husband & explained that she had slipped into a galley and was filling pitchers with boiling water. Her last words to him were “Everyone’s running to 1st class. I’ve got to go. Bye.”

The passengers fought the 4 hijackers & are suspected to have attacked the cockpit with a fire extinguisher. The plane then flipped over & sped toward the ground at upwards of 500 mph, crashing in a rural field in western Pennsylvania at 10:10 am. All 45 people aboard were killed. Its intended target is not known, but theories include the White House, the US Capitol, the Camp David presidential retreat in Maryland, or 1 of several nuclear power plants along the eastern seaboard.

At 7 pm, President George W. Bush, who had spent the day being shuttled around the country because of security concerns, returned to the White House. At 9 pm, he delivered a televised address from the Oval Office, declaring “Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve.” In a reference to the eventual U.S. military response he declared: “We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts & those who harbor them.” Operation Enduring Freedom, the US-led international effort to oust the Taliban regime in Afghanistan & destroy Osama bin Laden’s terrorist network based there, began on Oct. 7, 2001. Bin Laden was killed during a raid of his compound in Pakistan by US forces on May 2, 2011.


I was trying to figure out how to address Rep. Ilhan Omar's description of 9/11 as "Some people did something". This was in a speech to the Council on American Islamic Relations in March of this year. The Washington Post used a lot of time & energy to "explain" that she was referring to the civil liberties of Muslims being under attack & the rise of "Islamophobia". Maybe, but she got basic facts wring because she said, "CAIR was founded after 9/11 when they saw some people did something & all of our civil liberties were under attack." Well, CAIR was founded in 1994, before the 9/11 attacks & afterwards they were busted for funneling money to terrorists. Oops! Then I found this clip of a man who lost his mother on 9/11 speaking & it does a much better job than I can:


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The Falling Man is a photograph taken by AP photographer Richard Drew of a man falling from the North Tower at 9:41:15 am. The subject of the image, whose identity remains uncertain, was of the people trapped on the upper floors of the skyscraper who either fell searching for safety or jumped to escape the fire & smoke. The photograph gives the impression that the man is falling straight down; however, a series of photographs taken of his fall showed him to be tumbling through the air.

The photograph initially appeared in newspapers around the world, including on page 7 of The New York Times on Sept. 12, 2001. The photo's caption read, "A person falls headfirst after jumping from the north tower of the World Trade Center. It was a horrific sight that was repeated in the moments after the planes struck the towers." It appeared only once in the Times because of criticism & anger against its use. The photographer has noted that, in at least 2 cases, newspaper stories commenting on the image have attracted a barrage of criticism from readers who found the image "disturbing.”

Of the 2,606 victims killed inside the World Trade Center & on the ground during the 9/11 attacks, at least 200 are believed to have fallen or jumped to their deaths, while other estimates say the number is half of that or fewer. Officials could not recover or identify the bodies of those forced out of the buildings prior to the collapse of the towers. The NYC medical examiner's office said it does not classify the people who fell to their deaths on September 11 as "jumpers". According to Ellen Borakove, the examiner's office spokeswoman, "A 'jumper' is somebody who goes to the office in the morning knowing that they will commit suicide. These people were forced out by the smoke and flames or blown out."
The photograph initially appeared in newspapers around the world, including on page 7 of on September 12, 2001. The photo's caption read, "A person falls headfirst after jumping from the north tower of the World Trade Center. It was a horrific sight that was repeated in the moments after the planes struck the towers." It appeared only once in the because of criticism and anger against its use.
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EugenFJR

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You know what pisses me off the most, the same day, on all of the raghead channels overseas, they showed the muslims celebrating the fall of the towers, and throwing candy to children to celebrate...

My sister was in NYC at the time of the attack, she actually call right after the 1st plane struck, and I was watching the TV when the 2nd plane hit the 2nd tower.
 
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Grunk

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September 12, 1782
Some 250 Indians & 50 British soldiers watched in surprise as the gate of a fort they had surrounded opened a bit & a teenage girl ran out. She ran quickly across a field & into a cabin 60 yards away as the Indians laughed & yelled "squaw". When she emerged with a bulging tablecloth slung across her back, the besiegers immediately guessed it was full of gunpowder & opened fire. She did not break stride & made it back into the fort safely.

Elizabeth Zane, better known as Betty, was born on July 19, 1759, in Moorefield, Virginia. Betty moved with her family at an early age to the area that now is Wheeling, West Virginia. Betty’s older brother, Ebenezer Zane, pioneered this area in the turbulent Ohio Valley, which was the home of Native Americans who became increasingly hostile because of encroachment on their lands. These colonists were defying a royal order that reserved land west of the Appalachian Mountains for Native Americans. The threat of attack increased as the American Revolution began back East: the tribes who lived beyond the Appalachians understandably wanted the British to put down the rebellion, and almost all of them allied themselves with the British.

The Zane family & a few others established Fort Henry, named for Patriot Patrick Henry, in 1774 on a hillside overlooking the Ohio River, standing at what is now 10th & Main streets in downtown Wheeling, WV. The fort was surrounded by a stockade fence 12' high, & had a 3' walkway running around the inside. It was practically impregnable as long as supplies lasted. The fort covered about 3/4 of an acre of ground, & had a block house at each corner, with lines of stout pickets about 8' high, extending from one to the other. Within the enclosure were a number of cabins for the use of families, and the principal entrance was through a gateway on the side next to the straggling village.

In Sept. 1782, it was learned that a large Indian force was concentrating on the Sandusky River under the direction of the notorious white Tory renegade, Simon Girty, who had been captured by Indians as a boy. This force marched in the direction of Limestone, Kentucky, & laid siege to Fort Henry, before the scouts employed by Colonel Shepherd were able to discover his purpose. The inhabitants of the village and several families in the neighborhood went to the fort for safety. Girty appeared at the fort with a white flag & demanded their surrender in the name of His Majesty the King. The commander of the fort, Col. David Shepherd promptly refused, stating that those inside the fort had a sacred charge to protect; their mothers, sisters, wives & children were assembled around them, & they resolved to fight to the death. On Sept. 11, 1782, Fort Henry was besieged by the British & their Native American allies. Inside the fort were about 40 men & boys who were old enough to handle a rifle, along with some 60 women & children. Betty Zane was among those trapped inside.

Worse, they soon found themselves running out of gunpowder. The nearest source was 60 yds away in Ebenezer Zane’s cabin, where Betty’s father had buried a store box of black gunpowder in the cabin, & Betty volunteered to leave the fort to retrieve it. She believed she was the best candidate for the job for 3 reasons: she was a woman and the enemy would be less inclined to shoot a girl; she knew exactly where her father buried the gunpowder; & she was young and strong, & could carry an ample supply of powder. Fortunately for the lives of those settlers in the fort, Betty sped up the slight incline to the fort , & was able to reach her destination unharmed, carrying her precious cargo of powder. With that powder, the fort continued to hold off the attackers until the following morning, when the enemy raised the siege and left. Her feat is more impressive because she had gone without sleep for 40 hours, pouring lead into bullet molds & dipping the molds into water. 2 other girls in the fort, Molly Scott & Lydia Boggs, later claimed credit for this or similar feats, but most historians agree that it was Betty Zane.

Her heroism is remembered each year during Martins Ferry’s Betty Zane Pioneer Days. The community of Betty Zane near Wheeling, West Virginia, was named after her. Betty Zane’s descendant, Zane Grey, the author of numerous western novels (most famously, Riders of the Purple Sage), wrote a fictionalized account of Betty’s story & titled his book simply, Betty Zane. When Zane Grey could not find a publisher for the book, he published it himself in 1903 using his wife’s money. Zane Grey also wrote a 2nd book about her life & times entitled The Spirit of the Border, & named his daughter, Betty Zane Grey, after his famous ancestor.
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